English profiles

Amsterdam, 28 May 2015

It was interesting to talk to Rafal Blechacz since I could finally ask a lot of questions about the composer he is probably most associated with: Chopin. A long interview with a young pianist who was a clear winner of the Chopin Competition in 2005. 

Willem Boone (WB): How do you look back on the past ten years?

Rafal Blechacz (RB): October 2005, when I won first prize at the Chopin competition, was a very important moment in my career. It was the most important musical experience in my life, because from that moment on, I could play with great orchestras in great halls.

WB: Were you prepared for such a career?

RB: It was my dream to play for people all over the world. However, I was not used to signing contracts and I had no experience with agents. That was different from what I was used to: everything was new and I did not know what to do: I wanted to get in touch with conductors,  to work on repertoire and I had a lot of interesting concerts coming up!

WB: How difficult is it to be categorized “Chopin specialist” after winning the Chopin competition when you are Polish?

RB: Maybe I was not considered “specialist” everywhere, but in Japan and Poland, I was! I played a lot of Bach, Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven before I won the competition and I find it important to perform music of other composers too in concerts or on records, therefore,  I focused on Mozart, Beethoven, Debussy and Szymanovsky too.

WB: What does being Polish add to your Chopin-interpretations?

RB: Maybe it is easier to play and understand the character of music that requires a specific rhythm, such as the Mazurkas and the Polonaises. I feel the rhythm when I play these pieces, but then again, there are so many pianists who are not Polish and who play his music so well! Having the right sensibility is the most important..

WB: What was your first contact with Chopin’s music?

RB: I was 10 or 11 years old and I prepared the programme for my first competition that was only for young children. I studied a lot of Bach and one composition by Chopin, his Nocturne opus 32/2. I remember being fascinated by the harmonies and wanted to play more of his music. However, Bach was my first fascination, I actually wanted to be an organist!

WB: Do you still play Bach on the piano?

RB: Yes, quite a lot: several Preludes and Fugues, the Italian Concerto, Partitas and the E-major concerto with orchestra.

WB: How do you see his music? Do you feel he is a “strong” composer, if so, how come his music is often sentimentalized?

RB: Yes, he is a strong composer who is very universal!  A lot of people play his music, especially from Asia and they understand him (laughs). Chopin is a composer with very different emotions, you can see that in his Polonaise-Fantaisie, its final is fantastic.
As to people sentimentalizing his music, maybe they have a bad understanding of it.. I listen to my heart, it’s the most important.  Of course, a lot depends on my mood, the piano and the acoustics of the hall too.

WB: Can you say that Chopin is a “tricky” composer: some pianists don’t play him at all (Schnabel, Curzon , Brendel),  others almost exclusively play his music (Haraciewicz, Askenase) and others who play varied programmes (Argerich, Freire) say he is “jealous”.

RB: The most important is to feel inside what you can play: sometimes I feel I should wait with certain pieces. You can see something similar with someone like Glenn Gould, who recorded a lot of Bach and Mozart and only one piece by Chopin. Chopin’s style is not easy to understand, especially in his dance-like music. It’s not easy either to create the right atmosphere in his Nocturnes. As I said before, there are international pianists who understand his style very well: Pollini plays him well and he is Italian.

WB: Your colleague Barry Douglas said in an interview that Chopin is good for your technique, what do you think?

RB: Absolutely, his music is not easy. It’s interesting to tell you that Debussy made me more sensitive to Chopin’s music! Thanks to him I can play Chopin better, Bach’s polyphony helped me a great deal too. For me, it has always been important to play other composers as well, both before and after the Chopin competition. Not long ago, I did the Brahms First Piano Concerto, it is a great piece, but it took me 8 years!

WB: Is it that difficult to learn?

RB: No, but I felt it was important to get close to Brahms’s music and sometimes it is difficult to combine with other concerts and trips..

WB: Your colleague Christian Zacharias said when comparing Chopin’s and Schubert’s melodies that Chopin’s were “corny” and “predictable”?

RB: I don’t know, Schubert is close to Mozart,  for me, Chopin is close to Mozart. He admired Mozart’s operas, but the influence of bel canto is another important element in Chopin’s music. There are some interesting links between Mozart, Schubert and Chopin..

WB: Alfred Brendel said more than once that Chopin requires such a technique that you can either play his music or “the other composers”, do you agree?

RB: Again, I don’t know. As I said before, Debussy made me better in Chopin’s music, Liszt helped me too. Thanks to Liszt, I improved my technique.

WB: What do you think of pianists who played only or a lot of Chopin, like Askenase? It is often suggested that they were not the best Chopin performers?

RB: Askenase also played Mozart and Brahms, but now he conducts.

WB: No, that is Vladimir Ashkenazy, I meant Stefan Askenase!

RB: It is difficult to say what is “the best” or “the worst”, each musician has a different understanding, I like Haraciewicz but I like Rubinstein too, especially his live recordings.

WB: And what do you think of completists like Magaloff?

RB: I only know his Mazurkas, but I like them very much, he had a good sound and he played the right tempos!
There was a pupil from Paderewski, Szomptka, who had an understanding of the Mazurkas that was very close to Chopin’s style. His rhythm was fluent, neither too fast, nor too slow. Also, there is Karl Koczalski, a pupil from Mikuli, who studied with Chopin. Koczalski was very good in Chopin in general.

WB: Who would you call the best Polish Chopin pianist?

RB: Rubinstein was an amazing pianist and not only in Chopin and Zimerman , everything he plays is interesting. Anderzewski is interesting too, but he doesn’t play a lot of Chopin, he concentrates more on the classic composers and Szymanovsky.

WB: And who do you find particularly interesting among the non-Polish pianists?

RB: I already mentioned Pollini, Michelangeli is Italian too and his 2nd Scherzo is fantastic and his 2nd Sonata is interesting. I like Argerich’s Preludes and 2nd Sonata.

WB: I have a friend who can’t listen to Martha Argerich in Chopin, especially in the Concertos,  since she never plays the same tempo and changes almost in every bar..

RB: Yes, her tempi are very fast in the Concertos, especially in the last movements, but I like it, I prefer her recording of the First Piano Concerto with Abbado.

WB: I heard an amazing performance of the 3rd Sonata, back in 1987, by Radu Lupu. It was a bit of an uneven reading and he started banging in the last movement, but I will never forget the magic of the 3rd movement….

RB: Where did he play that?

WB: In Nijmegen in the Netherlands.

RB: That’s a very nice hall!

WB: What are qualities a good Chopin player must have?

RB: A beautiful sound and a good technique, although that’s not the most important. And you must understand Polish rhythms.

WB: Can you learn the latter?

RB: Yes, there are some interesting books by Kochalsky and also letters from Chopin’s pupils describing their lessons with him.

WB: Do you remember interesting advice?

RB: Yes, for instance, the first Mazurka should not be played too fast in order to respect the rhythm. Also for the 2nd movement of the 2nd Piano Concerto where the fast passages should be played ppp. You should not forget that they had different instruments back then..

WB: How essential is rubato in Chopin?

RB: A lot of journalists ask me about how to use rubato, especially in Japan! Sometimes, I feel it should sound in a romantic or in classic way.

WB: Can that feeling change?

RB: Yes, sometimes I choose a different tempo, for instance in case of dry acoustics. Those circumstances can influence the rubato. It is difficult for a conductor when a pianist plays with a lot of rubato. In the recitative of the 2nd movement of the 2nd Concerto, it is difficult to be together!

WB: Liszt had a beautiful description of what rubato means: he pointed at a tree, its  branches moved in the wind, whereas the tree itself stood still…

RB: You have to remember the first tempo, if not you can lose the right atmosphere! Chopin said the left hand is the conductor. By the way, there is a different rubato for the Nocturnes than for the dance-like music. You can use more freedom in the Nocturnes.

WB: Who of the non-Polish prize winners of the Chopin competition do you rate as most interesting?

RB: I remember in 1995, when I was 10 years old that the first prize was not awarded, Alexei Sultanov, who died very young, won second prize. I remember him well, he played the 2nd Concerto. I thought it was important to listen to other pianists. I remember Yundi Li very well, when he won first prize in 2000.
For Poland, it was important when Zimerman won in 1975, it had been 20 years since Haraciewicz won first prize in 1955. The Polish were waiting for Zimerman, who won a lot of different awards, among others for the best Mazurkas, Polonaises and Concerto.

WB: I’d just to like to hear your opinion about the Chopin interpretations of a few really famous colleagues of yours: what do you think of Hoffman?

RB: I like his Waltzes and his 2nd Concerto a lot!

WB: Horowitz…

RB: He is interesting, but compared to Rubinstein, he had a completely different understanding of his music! His Polonaise opus 53 is nice, although it is not the way I would play it: he almost uses no pedal and some chords are very short. The octaves in the middle part are fantastic and his tempo is very good. As far as the dynamics are concerned, his fortes are too big, they are more suited for Tschaikofsky. Furthermore, I like his Mazurkas and I like his sound and the atmosphere of his live concerts.

WB: Rubinstein..

RB: My favourite in Chopin, along with Zimerman. I “accept” his tempo, feeling, sound, everything!

WB: Arrau….

RB: Fantastic, I like his performance of the 2nd Concerto with the London Philharmonic Orchestra a lot, especially the 2nd part of the 2nd movement, in spite of his slow tempo. His Preludes are fantastic too.

WB: Do you know his Nocturnes?

RB: No, I haven’t heard them.

WB: I’ll send you a copy of them, his sound was always so great!

RB: Beethoven and Brahms by Arrau were wonderful too. I like the DVD of Beethoven 4rth Concerto with Muti and another one from Bonn where he played (among others) opus 111.

WB: Kempff, who has recorded only a few CDs with Chopin….

RB: No, I don’t know his Chopin

WB: Do you know Glenn Gould in the 3rd Sonata?

RB: Yes, and I don’t like it. Do you like his Mozart?

WB: No, I hate it!

RB: Me too!

WB: Ashkenazy…..

RB: He uses strong dynamics and contrasts are very big, his approach is interesting.

WB: Would you consider studying and performing all of Chopin’s works?

RB: In the future, why not? I have to prepare more Mazurkas, although maybe not for a recording. It would be very difficult to record all of them and to play the same rhythm for two weeks… It is important to be fresh every time. It’s difficult anyway to decide in a studio about the “right” tempo!

WB: Isn’t it as difficult in a concert?

RB: Yes, but each concert is different anyway!

WB: Which music of Chopin is the most difficult to grasp?

RB: The Mazurkas and the Polonaise-Fantaisie. The Polonaise opus 44 is hard too, since its middle part is a Mazurka…

WB: The 3rd Sonata is difficult to bring off too, isn’t it?

RB: Yes, indeed, since it is a big scaled composition, more classical than the 2nd Sonata. Especially the 4rth movement is very different from the 3 preceding movements, it calls for a completely different atmosphere.

WB: What would you consider his greatest work?

RB: Maybe the Polonaise-Fantaisie, it’s his testament (laughs). Horowitz didn’t understand it, Richter played it too and I like what he did.

WB: What sets him apart as a composer?

RB: It’s hard to say, maybe the harmonies and the unexpected modulations. It’s very poetic music that has everything in it: there is a lot of sorrow, joy, melancholy…

WB: Joy? It’s not what I associate his music most with?

RB: I think there is joy in the Concertos, for instance in the last movement of the 2nd Concerto!

WB: Speaking of which, I like your recording of the Chopin concertos with the Concertgebouw Orchestra: I attended the concert and thought everything was beautifully clear and unsentimental!

RB: like Mozart!

WB: Has Chopin revolutionized the piano technique like Liszt did?

RB: No, his virtuosity is totally different, although his first compositions were written in a brilliant style. He had another approach to technique than Liszt. With Chopin, it was a way to make music. Liszt was fantastic in his own way, also in his last pieces or in his Sonata.

WB: Do you play the Liszt Sonata?

RB: No, I play other pieces like his Concertos, Etudes and the Rigoletto Paraphrase.

WB: You also advocate the music of Szymanovsky, he is not very well known, what can you tell us about him?

RB: He is not well known in my country either! I wanted to change that situation with my Debussy-Szymanovsky album. His 1st Sonata is not popular in Poland; it has a lot of influences of Scriabin, maybe a bit of Rachmaninov and Brahms. I played his Variations opus 3 almost everywhere. It is a cycle of 12 short variations, that are very different in character. There are a lot of chords and they have a virtuosic culmination.

WB: I love his Variations opus 10 that Zimerman has played !

RB: Yes, there are amazing.

WB: Was Szymanovsky a good pianist?

RB: Unfortunately he wasn’t. His Synfonia Concertante is not so difficult, because he wanted to play it himself..

WB: He knew how to write for the piano, though! The variations opus 10 are highly virtuosic!

RB: Yes, but he never played those. He was friends with Rubinstein to whom he dedicated the Variations opus 3. He could ask him for advice..

WB: Is there a lot of difference between his early and his last works?

RB: Yes, his late works were inspired by Polish folk music.  His works from the second period, Métopes and Masques, are more impressionistic.

WB: They sometimes remind me of Scriabin!

RB: Masques, yes, but not Métopes!

WB: Are there other Polish composers that you find worthwhile?

RB: Zimerman recorded works of Bacewicz, who also used a lot of Polish folk music. And Lutoslawski dedicated his Piano Concerto to Zimerman.

WB: Do you know the music of Zarebski?

RB: Yes, my professor recorded his music.

WB: Now you play Mozart’s Piano Concerto in A major K 488, what is your relationship with this piece?

RB: I started to play when I was a child and before I participated in the Chopin Competition, I played this concerto with Jerzy Maksimiuk. It was broadcast through the whole country. I came back to it in 2006 and played it with different orchestras. I also prepared the C minor concerto K 491, which I played in Salzburg and Luzern. During this tour, we will play K 488 without conductor. I am very happy, because they play very well.

WB: Mozart is often considered a tricky composer, is he trickier than Chopin?

RB: Yes, he is. Like with Bach, it is difficult to find the right sound.

WB: I have a few questions about your fellow pianist Kristian Zimerman: is he your mentor?

RB: We first met before the Chopin competition, also in 2005. He came to Katowice  where he received a Doctorat honoris causa. He also did a master class for students who wanted to play in the competition. I played the Polonaise opus 53 and was a bit sad, since my lesson was very short.  He told me that I played well and asked me if I needed any help. After the competition, he sent me a beautiful letter with advice. He gave me his number. It was very important to speak to him about repertoire and agencies. He invited me in 2007 and we spent 5 or 6 days at his place. He bought me a camera and an iPad. We are still in touch via SMS and sometimes we meet abroad. We met in Japan when he played Bacewicz and Schumann with the Hagen Quartet and he came to my concert in New York.

WB: People say that he is never satisfied, so how difficult was it to work with him?

RB: That’s not true, he is happy sometimes! He was happy with his interpretation of the Lutoslawski concerto with the Concertgebouw Orchestra and Mariss Jansons in Amsterdam (I attended and it was quite good indeed, like all the other Zimerman concerts I attended, WB )

WB: Is he the biggest perfectionist ever?

RB: I don’t think so. He needs long to prepare and he wants to be 100% sure. He has taken care of everything before he can play on stage, as you know he travels with his own piano and tuner. I heard his recital of Beethoven opus 109, 110 and 111 last year in Germany and it was fantastic.

WB: Why is he so ferociously against CDs and radio broadcasts?

RB: He doesn’t like studio recordings. It is not easy to recreate the atmosphere of a concert. With an orchestra, it’s different, you have an “audience” in a way, since you make music together.

WB: I find it a bit of a shame he has re-recorded the Lutoslawski concerto with Rattle, whereas everybody wants him to record the Chopin sonatas. He keeps saying he is “not ready” but he plays them like nobody else…Will he be recording again you think?

RB: Maybe he recorded the Chopin sonatas, but he doesn’t want to release them… the Lutoslawski concerto is important to him, since it was dedicated to him.

WB: What are your future plans?

RB: I recorded Bach and the cd is waiting for release: it includes the Partitas nos 1 and 3, 4 Duets and the Italian Concerto. The DG-team comes to my concert in Amsterdam and then we will discuss further plans. I would love to record Beethoven concertos nos 2 and 4 with Trevor Pinnock. We have a very good contact. To be discussed!

WB: You said in another interview that you often travel by car, isn’t that exhausting?

RB: I have my car here! I feel more independent. I dislike airports or airplanes: they are often noisy, especially in Europe, you lose a lot of time. I like to travel after a concert, because there is too much adrenalin. I cannot sleep and therefore I drive for the next 2 or 3 hours.

WB: Aren’t you too exhausted to drive?

RB: No, I cannot sleep directly after a concert.

WB: What are you thinking of while driving?

RB: Sometimes I think about the concert I just played or I listen to CDs (not my own!) or I am talking to my father, who is the second driver. For a tour with concerts in Germany, France and Spain, it is easier to go by car. In the night there is not so much traffic..

WB: My last question: you also play the organ, in what way does that help you as a pianist?

RB: It was my first fascination! Bach on the organ sometimes teaches me the right legato in Bach. On a piano, you have to play legato with your fingers, whereas the pedals on an organ are used very differently. I use the organ legato in Bach on the piano in order to keep the clarity of sound. It’s easier to change the colours on the organ by using special registers.




Zeist,  22 February 2015

German pianist Ragna Schirmer became well known with her recording of Bach’s Goldberg Variations. She is also known for several “unusual” projects, focusing on the music of Händel and Clara Schumann and playing both as an actor and as a pianist in a puppet show, devoted to the life of Maurice Ravel. But what she probably likes best: playing in an intimate venue and explaining her audience about the works she plays. We spoke after her concert at the castle of Zeist (Slot Zeist) in February 2015.

Willem Boone (WB): The leaflet in which your concert was announced said that you were “honoured to play in a sold out Philharmonie in Berlin, but that you preferred to play in a more intimate hall where you could establish a direct contact with your audience” Yet, I would say that Berlin is a more important venue for an artist, isn’t it?

Ragna Schirmer (RS): There are different occasions with different aspects: I really enjoy playing piano concertos with orchestras in big halls. But for the recitals- as the composers were often performed in small rooms at their time- I like a very intimate atmosphere.

WB: Don’t you try to change the Berliner Philharmonie into a more intimate place?

RS: If it is possible to reach every single person in a hall and create intimacy and intensity, I am happy. Light is very important, and of course the soft notes in the music...

WB: On your website, you said in the films about your trip to China that “you feel lonely before the concert and also afterwards and that there are many things you cannot share with anyone. You have to come to terms with yourself” How do you manage that?

RS: As a musician I mostly study alone. Sometimes it is a very lonely job, travelling, practicing... I often question myself, am I good enough, do I stand all this. But I also need these phases with myself: concentration is very important. Music always deals with emotions: there are pieces that tell about death, there are pieces that feel so joyful, I have to feel all these emotions to translate them into music. Before a concert I ask myself: what is the story I want to tell today?
But being a musician is the most wonderful job I could ever imagine!

WB: You said you are someone who likes to practise a lot. I often have the following experience as an amateur pianist: there are certain passages that scare me or that don’t come off well. You can practise a lot, but often the fear comes back whenever you play such a passage. How does it work with you: can you work until you master a piece perfectly well?

RS: It is like in sports: you have to train as hard as you can, and then win the race. Hopefully.

WB: And when you don’t succeed, do you say: „O well, tough luck, next time, I’ll do better” or are you disappointed?

RS:  It depends on what happened. The intention is to interpret the music as the composers felt the piece. If I manage to achieve this authenticity, I am happy. In times of perfection-  CD recordings etc., we often forget that in former times music was performed spontaneously.


WB: You spoke about stage fright, do you suffer less from this as you are getting more experienced?

RS:  I got to know myself very well. But whenever I step on stage, I have an intensity. So- some people need Bungee, I need to perform.

WB: Wilfried Eckstein from  the Goethe Institut Shanghai said about you: We’ll have to build up an image.” What would be yours?

RS: Oh, I hope I have the image to be familiar with Handel, or I am known for unusual projects e.g. with theater. If my listeners tell me, they felt something special, that is the best image.

WB: You said on your website you had “an insane amount of ideas”, but that you just wished “to have time to realize all of them” Which ideas are you thinking of?


RS: The next big project is a CD with pieces by Clara Schumann. She was not only a wonderful pianist but also a gifted composer. I feel responsible to play her pieces and I am looking forward to make them more popular.


WB: I read about Clara Schumann that she left out the slow movements of Beethoven sonatas!

RS: If you look up the recital programs in the 19th century, you will find several single movements of sonatas or symphonies. It was usual to play "best of".

WB: You are always looking for a leitmotif, what would be the leitmotif in this recital?

RS: I always try to have an idea in my program. In this case it was the tension between severity and lightness of improvisation.

WB: Is Gaspard de la Nuit indeed one of the biggest challenges ?

RS: Scarbo is one of the most difficult pieces, yes. In the theater-play about Ravel's life I even have to play it with a mask on my face. Today I could see everything!

WB: Could you imagine that Martha Argerich learnt this in only 5 days and said: “I didn’t know it was supposed to be difficult?”

RS: She was young?

WB: Yes, she was 14 years old.

RS: Then it is possible. When I was 14 years old, I learned the Goldbergvariations within 2 months. When I -years later- realized the significance of the piece, I could already play it.But Argerichs Scarbo: a legend!

WB: How difficult is it to play „without expression“ (sans expression”) as Ravel explicitly writes in the score of Le Gibet?

RS: He probably meant the atmosphere of death, emptiness, desolation. I try to imagine the gibbet in the wind. And play without any rubato.

WB: Aren’t the Miroirs about as difficult?

RS: They are in a way more intimate than Gaspard. I found it very intense today: in this room in the castle.

WB: Your recording of the Goldberg Variations received a lot of praise. How difficult is it when you always have to fight especially with these variations against the shade of ……..  


RS: Glenn Gould? He was a genius, outstanding, but it must be allowed to play the piece after him. The Goldberg Variations are so important for me, I absolutely wanted to record them. Although I did not have a label-contract at that time.


WB: It struck me how difficult the Goldberg Variations are when you play them on a piano!

RS: Sure, you have only one manual.

WB: What could you say in favour of Bach played on a piano?

RS: I am sure he heard an orchestra or a choir also when he composed for harpsichord. So I just use the possibilities I have now. Hopefully he would have done so, if he knew our modern instruments.

WB: And what could one say against playing Bach on a piano?

RS: Nothing. But of course it is also interesting to hear the music on historical instruments. I do so myself. The CD with Clara Schumann I will play a piano from 1856. Either ways are right, if they serve the composer and the music.

WB: You did a lot of work in order to make Händel more popular, would you put him on the same level as Bach?

RS: Bach is the biggest genius, his perfection in horizontal and vertical musical lines is unreachable. But Handel is more vivid, he wrote operas. At that time he was more popular than Bach. I enjoy playing them in recitals and show the differences and the similarities.

WB: Not all musicians will share your opinion, the harpsichord player Gustav Leonhardt once said: “Händel wrote for mass audience.”

RS: Great. Celibidache said about Karajan, he was like Coca Cola: the crowd like it. Good to polarize... Listen to Handel, and your mood will improve. My opinion.

WB: His suites are played by relatively few pianists:   Richter, Perahia, de Larrocha, Cherkassky. Why is that?

RS: In contrast with Bach, Handel did not write anything into the score, he wanted the interpret to improvise. Pianists normally do not improvise, looking at our traditional education.

WB:  What do you mean by „improvise”? He wrote down the music, didn’t he?

RS: Some parts are only harmonies, sometimes he leaves out a middle voice, also the fugues are not completely built with all voices. Handel was not as exact as Bach.

WB: You don’t want to imitate the sound of the harpsichord, but take full advantage of the sound of the modern piano. How can you realize that?


RS: Many people tell me, they love Baroque Music, but they do not love the historical instruments. So I try to imagine an opera singer, when I play a cantilene by Handel, or I try to imagine the sound of an orchestra on the piano.

WB: You played his organ concertos on a Hammerflügel, isn’t that hard? An organ has more power, hasn’t it?

RS: Sure. But the organ concertos are so great, I absolutely wanted to interpret them. So I developed different ways, from Baroque Orchestra to Jazz-Band with Hammond Organ.

WB: Why actually?

RS: Because Handel has the groove! He swings.

WB: So does Bach!

RS: Yes. No groove, no music.

WB: Just a few questions about this „Puppenspiel“ „Für eine taube Seele” (= for a deaf soul), that is about the life of Maurice Ravel, who is this “taube Seele”?

RS: "Seelentaubheit" is the medical term for the disease Ravel had: he could not control his motorics any more.


WB: What exactly do you do in this production, are you also an actor?

RS: Yes. I play and perform "the music". In this way I can serve the composer in a special way: not only by playing his pieces but also by showing his love to the music. And serving the composer is my job.

Hilversum, 18 October 2015

It’s not difficult to find pianist Simon Trpceski in one of the rooms of the Dutch radio studios in Hilversum, since I can hear him practising the last movement of Chopin’s First Piano Concerto..

Simon Trpceski (ST): Tough concerto… I am playing four different concertos at the moment!

Willem Boone (WB): Are they all new to you?

ST: No, they are not all new, but it requires time and patience to play four different concertos!

WB: Is the Chopin new to your repertoire?

ST: Three or four years ago, I played it for the first time. I studied it for concerts with Andris Nelsons in Birmingham and I played it before with the Dutch conductor, Kees Bakels, in Porto. He is one of the best conductors I have worked with! I prefer Chopin’s First Concerto to his Second, I need to come to terms with the first movement of the latter.. I will play Chopin’s First Concerto in San Francisco next week, last week I played in Verona and I was on tour with Rachmaninov’sThird Concerto in the Czech Republic with the Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra. It’s nice to be back here, I have a good relationship with the Radio Philharmonic Orchestra.

WB: Last night you played Shostakovitsj First Piano Concerto, what is your relationship with this piece?

ST: You get a smile on your face when you hear it for the first time.. It is easier to understand music when you understand the circumstances and the irony that are behind it. Shostakovitsj picks up themes from the street and there are quotes of Haydn and Beethoven. He was a genius in the way he combined these motives. The orchestration is unusual, but it obviously worked. I played it for the first time in 1999 along with Prokofiev’s First Piano Concerto, two totally different languages and approaches to the piano. It was with the Macedonian Philharmonic Orchestra in Skopje. It was a great joy to play it.
If you look at the effects Shostakovitsj wanted to reach, it is difficult to bring out the irony, but his language and his style are not naïve at all. The concerto should be almost Mozart-like in its articulation. For yesterday’s concert, we had very little time to rehearse, but I think it was a good run-through for the concert in Amsterdam. I have good memories of a gala concert in Amsterdam in 2007 with Mariss Jansons. I heard that Shostakovitsj’s wife was present during the concert, but to my regret, nobody introduced me to her.

WB: I heard you play it in Rotterdam, in 2008! Back to the concerto, do you have any idea why he introduced a solo part for the trumpet as well?

ST: It’s an unusual combination. The character of tunes sounds natural on that instrument. Shostakovitsj liked to explore limits of instruments in his symphonies, although not so much in this concerto. The writing for strings is not too comfortable by the way..

WB: Where for instance?

ST: For the violins and celli in the first movement in general and also the writing of the fugato in the last movement. They need to be alert, for the trumpet, all depends on the tempo of the pianist!

WB:  I have always found it difficult to say something about the atmosphere of this piece: would you call it “dramatic”  or “joyous” or “tongue in cheek”?

ST: You may find it “joyous” when you hear it for the first time, but it is a very ironic piece. There are a lot of personal and intimate moments, especially in the second movement. He tells a very personal story that has a lot to do with the struggle he was living through. He was a master in expressing his pain or sad memories, e.g. in the recapitulation of the slow movement when the trumpet comes in. You can hear his subtlety as a composer in the dialogues with the trumpet. The intensity of emotion with this kind of orchestration without winds is amazing. The trumpet is almost a decoration.

WB: I find it difficult in general to come to terms with his music: the slow movements can be rather “gloomy” and the fast movements are sometimes bordering on the grotesque…

ST: The irony is one of his specifics. It’s an answer to the system he lived in. It can go to a point of grotesque indeed. I love the childish spirit he kept throughout his entire life. What you said about his music being gloomy, yes, very much so, but isn’t it nice to explore different sides of someone’s personality? Even towards the end of the First Concerto, something remains in the soul that basically the story wasn’t that happy..

WB: How difficult is his music technically?

ST: Not too much, there are a few moments where it can be uncomfortable, however it is difficult to put it together with the orchestra, you need a good team!

WB: Was Shostakovitsj a good pianist himself? I once interviewed Ashkenazy and he said he wasn’t..

ST: He was probably not as good a pianist as Ashkenazy! (laughs).  I worked with him in San Francisco.. It depends on what you call “good”?

WB: “Good” as opposed to Rachmaninov and Prokofiev?

ST: Well, when I hear how fast Shostakovitsj could play.. He was one of the prize winners in the Chopin competition in 1927 and playing in such a competiton… If you listen to his recording of the last movement of his cello sonata, we should pay respect to that. He certainly was a good pianist, but how much time do you have to practise when you have so much music in your head?

WB: In the booklet for last night’s concert, it was written that the First Concerto has a filmic character, do you agree with this statement , since the camera changes so often?

ST: Thank you for telling me, I don’t speak Dutch.. Yes, I can agree that it’s about pictures and emotions as well as changes of atmosphere. He went straight to the point with the quote of Beethoven’s Appassionata right at the beginning. With this quote he wanted to make jokes as well, although they were often of ironic truth, sometimes even cynical, but that’s acceptable for this kind of geniuses!

WB: Do you play his Second Piano Concerto too?

ST: I accompanied my students and enjoyed it very much. He wrote it for his son, who wasn’t a very good pianist. Its third movement has a rhythm that is characteristic for music in Macedonia! He was stealing a lot, but he knew how to integrate it in his own music. There is no going around… he had a fantastic mind. Shostakovitsj can produce incredible emotions of intensity and he makes you think, more than others. To live under that kind of stress, not being able to express yourself, having to face people who have no clue about his music and yet he stayed faithful to himself and he was still able to maintain his principles and not to go under even if he had to write works for the occasion.. It is a shame I never had the chance to meet him!

WB: Rachmaninov must be close to your heart too, since you play all of his piano concertos?

ST: Yes, the romanticism is close to my heart, probably because of my personality. It touches me how Russian composers express their emotions.  I had Russian teachers, so it was very natural to play a lot of Rachmaninov, Prokofiev, Tschaikofsky and Shostakovitsj for them, but I have explored  many other styles. I really enjoyed playing Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven and I hope to go in that direction as well. On one of my CD’s from Wigmore Hall, I play Bach/Liszt and Schubert and I am very happy about it. I remember I played Bach’s Ouverture in the French style for my debut recital at the Kleine Zaal of the Concertgebouw and on my next CD live from Wigmore Hall,  I will play Brahms Intermezzi and his Händel Variations that are not so often played, as well as works by Ravel and Poulenc. For my Wigmore Hall debut, I played Schumann Fantasiestücke and Symphonic Studies and I loved it.

WB: Do you often get the chance to play Beethoven in recital?

ST: No, but I am thinking of it. I played several of his sonatas as a student and I played his 5th Concerto this season. Life is very short for all the music I’d like to play, but I would definitely like to explore his music, for the sake of music and Beethoven. I’d also like to play his 3rd and 4rth Concertos, we’ll see about that!

WB: During the last edition of the Gergiev Festival in Rotterdam, all four Rachmaninov concertos were played the same day. One musicologist said he liked number four best, he thought Rachmaninov didn’t try to write any beautiful melodies and was actually quite modern. What do you think of number four?

ST: That’s correct, it’s a very sexy concerto in its freedom of spirit and development of musical personality! It was the last concerto of the four I studied. Number four shows us another writing of Rachmaninov, its language is full of jazzy harmonies. And in this concerto, he shows wonderful craftsmanship of orchestration. It’s true that the melodies are different: they are shorter, but certainly beautiful. There is also a lot of mystery in the second and third movements, especially towards the end of the development of the last movement, it is like a bad dream at some points..

WB: I think there is a paradox when people call Rachmaninov “old fashioned”, “overly sentimental” or  “music for cinema”, yet I have seldom seen a hall that was more packed than during this afternoon and evening in Rotterdam when all four concertos were played!

ST: His melodies touch the heart, Rachmaninov evokes this kind of emotions..

WB: Do you have a favourite among the piano concertos?

ST: Yes, my favourite is number one! It’s the result of his Russian period, after its completion he left Russia. I played the revised version, which is more compact than the original. Especially after number two, people “expected” beautiful melodies from Rachmaninov. If you take the Paganini Rhapsody, people always remember Variation number 18, which is actually the reversion of the theme, but other than that there are not many beautiful melodies.

WB: It’s interesting what you say about the Paganini Rhapsody, but it’s such a scintillating piece and I find the pianissimo conclusion so surprising!

ST: Yes, at the end Rachmaninov wants to say: “There you are, I can finish like this as well!” Sadly, both the First and the Fourth Concertos are not often performed, I played them a few years ago, but I should do them again, you should come when I play them! (laughs)

WB: I remember all of a sudden that I heard you play number three in Lille, back in 2004, during a piano festival!

ST (laughs loudly): You were there! We had a very short rehearsal, they cut it and the Yamaha piano wasn’t that great… but a member of the organisation of the Queen Elisabeth Competition in the audience and he was thrilled. He told me I should play in that competition, but I said: “No thanks, I am done with competitions!”

WB: A French critic compared your recording of the First, Fourth Concertos and the Paganini Rhapsody with Rachmaninov’s own and praised your non-ostentatious virtuosity. That should be some of the highest praise, shouldn’t it?

ST: Can you send that review to me? I am glad he wrote that, unfortunately I don’t play often in France, but it’s certainly nice to hear that there are people who like my recordings.  Yes, I think you have to play his music with nobility and elegance, you shouldn’t be too sentimental, the “Chopinization”of romantic composers is bad, because Chopin is a very delicate composer. A lot of pianists are milking him! Taste in music is what I learnt from my Russian teachers.

WB: How difficult is it to approach music in a fresh way, as if you discover it on the spot, especially in warhorses like Rachmaninov 2 or Beethoven 4?

ST: It is difficult…when I play Beethoven 5, Rach 2, Tschaikofsky 1, Grieg or Schumann concertos, I don’t like to play them in order to sell tickets. I try to explore more and find a meaning that I missed when I was learning it. It’s all about the inexplicable magic that music brings out.. When I am tired or when I think “Here I go to play … again”, I should think of the privilege to touch an instrument, to produce sounds and to create, about the happiness this brings to you. The majority of people can’t play an instrument, so you should be happy. This thought should come when you play something famous; the concept stays the same, but you are always exploring yourself. People expect you to be on a high level: you have a responsibility towards yourself, that is your first responsibility!

WB: Are you never playing on automatic pilot?

ST: No, never! If the machine is taking over, I am not afraid to stop! I composed songs and played the accordion, so I could do different things…

WB: My teacher sometimes speaks about “intelligent practising”, can you relate to that? Do you have any examples of this?

ST: Yes, you have to focus on the problems that arise and stay calm. You should allow yourself time, then you can go faster. I memorised Brahms First Concerto in five days and Rachmaninov and Prokofiev Third Concertos within one month, but sometimes the memory works slower. You also have to spread your energy. And last but not least: you should enjoy what you do!

WB: What will you do for the rest of the day?

ST: My brother will come and we will have dinner together. Tomorrow is his birthday. A few people will come to the concert in Amsterdam on Sunday morning and on Monday I’ll fly to San Francisco for concerts and masterclasses!

Amsterdam, 16 March 2004

I agreed to meet Stephen Hough at his hotel in Amsterdam at 10.30 a.m We agreed to combine the interview with (a belated) breakfast, but much to my embarrassment it wasn’t possible to find a place, where a decent breakfast could be served... We finally ended up in café Wildschut for some coffee and the interview....

Willem Boone (WB): What was your first musical impression?

Stephen Hough (SH): There was no classical music in our house and I only remember nursery rhymes like “Jack and Jill went up the hill”. When, on one occasion, I went to a friend’s house and saw a piano, I became fascinated and tried to play these nursey rhymes on it. I then began to ask for lessons so we eventually got a piano. Within a year I participated in the National Junior Piano Playing Competition and made it to the finals at the South Bank in London. I was the youngest competitor and although I didn’t win a prize, Gerald Moore, who was the Chairman of the jury, made a special point in his speech of saying that he thought I showed great promise and had a future ahead of me. A lot of hyped up things happened – someone wrote about me in the Daily Mail:“Could this be the new Mozart?”, but my parents  were very wise. They said “no”to all offers of concerts and managers and that was the best thing they could do at the time! They wanted me to have a normal life. I  then became quite obsessed with the piano and sigh-read lots of repertoire. I also composed a lot of music.

WB: Have there been any determinant musical experiences?

SH:  On recordings I was impressed by pianists from the past, e.g. Rachmaninov, Paderewski, Cortot, Godowsky. I found the playing of contemporary artists less interesting. In live concerts, I remember being thrilled by Richter and Ogden- this was at the Liverpool Philharmonic Hall.

WB: When were you sure you wanted to become a professional musician?

SH: At the age of 6! I didn’t want to do anything else... although in my early teens, I did become less interested and didn’t listen to classical music. As I said, my parents were very wise, they wanted me to go to school. A lot of prodigies burn out in later life. Solomon, on the other hand, withdrew and came back later as a mature pianist. I often ask myself where you draw the line between art and circus.

WB: Can you ever get prepared for this job?

SH: I am not sure. Everybody deals with this in a different way. You definitely need a certain strength. You need to find resources for inspiration under the most uninspiring circumstances, e.g. a rehearsal straight after an 8 hour flight! You also need sensitivity and some natural originality. Performing is often a balancing-act,  on the one hand you don’t want to be original in a self-concious, artificial way  on the other hand, you don’t want to follow mindlessly what everyone else does. It has to be natural from the inside. I try not to listen too much to other pianists- you have to leave space for your own ideas to develop.

WB: Do you never listen to other pianists at all?

SH: Not very often, but it can be good if I am stuck with something. I sometimes wonder what others do with a problematic passage and it can be inspiring, even when it’s a bad performance. If even x or y plays something badly, then it’s less intimidating when I am not at my best!

WB:But if you listen, do you mainly listen to the same pianists?

SH: Yest, to Cortot or Friedman, whom I find very inspiring. Horowitz too, he has such creativity and sheer presence. I heard him only once in concert in 1982 at the Met in New York, and he knew exactly how to make the piano sound..... He was like a cup of espresso, a piano-energy boost!

WB: You an insatiable pianist who is curious about a lot of things, but is it always gratifying if you study for instance Godowsky’s Chopin Studies? No recording company seems interested in it, no agent asks you to programme this, so you hardly get the opportunity to play it or do you sight read very fast?

SH: I learn very thoroughly and don’t learn anything I won’t perform or record. Having said this, I have to choose very carefully, since I can’t play as much repertoire as I like. For instance, there was no way I would have learnt the Ghost Variations by George Tsontakis without intending to perform it in concert. Although I have never played the Von Sauer Concerto in concert, it was a coupling on record for Scharwenka’s 4rth Concerto.

WB: Don’t you have trouble to programme the Hummel Sonata you played in Amsterdam the other day (14 March)?

SH: No, everybody seems curous about the Hummel Sonatas since they were played so much by pianists from the past like Chopin and Liszt..

WB: Do you have carte blanche from your recording company?

SH:  Hyperion is a wonderful company, they never seem to say no. Although the more obscure, the better. I actually do play mainly standard repertoire, even though I haven’t recorded all of it, say Beethoven sonatas. For my previous recording company, Virgin, I recorded more well known repertoire: Schumann, Liszt, the Brahms concertos, yet a lot of people think I only play obscure repertoire. I think it’s important to play many different things. For example, I played Hummel Concertos and think it’s vital to know them in order to know the Chopin concertos properly. Chopin took so many of his ideas from Hummel and we can learn something about the way Chopin would have played his own concertos from understanding the earlier prototype. Liszt played Hummel’s concertos everywhere. To me it’s inexplicable that pianists don’t know Hummel’s music! People often see Chopin as a genius, whose ideas come from nowhere. That’s not true, of course. He was a genius, of course, but there is a clear link with the past. Chopin’s style is a continuation of the Classical, forward looking in its romanticism, not a kind of early model of a big romantic concerto. For instance he took the idea from Hummel of making the coda more virtuosic instead of writing a cadenza. I find it also inexplicable that pianists play Rachmaninov and don’t know his recordings!

WB: Speaking of Rachmaninov, you will record all his concertos on CD, maybe the question is rather forward, but do you think you can contribute anything to such a huge discography? They have been recorded so many times already....

SH: If I didn’t, I wouldn’t record them! And they have never been recorded as a “live concert”set yet. Frankly, I haven’t listened to many cycles. But many performances I hear do not satisfy me. There is a tradition since the 50’s to take heavy, slow tempi for instance the 3rd movement of the 3rd concerto where the coda of the 3rd movement is marked “vivacissimo”and often played too slowly. The 2nd Concerto can sound mundane and ordinary. It can work in a confortable sort of way, but I want to go beyond that.

WB: Is it true that the rythm of the 3rd movement of the 3rd concerto is particularly difficult to bring off?

SH: I don’t think there is anything in the rythm itself which is unusual or difficult, but the whole concerto is complicated because of the intricate inner figuration and the necessity of complete control of colour at every dynamic level. The 4rth Concerto is harder to bring off with the orchestra as a unified piece. But then again, everything is difficult! Mozart concertos are difficult too! Or Saint Seans’s 3rd Concerto, it’s one of the hardest pieces I ever studied. You hear every detail unlike Rachmaninov’s 3rd Concerto... Hummel Sonatas are difficult too, because the enormous technical demands are so audible and awkward. That’s one of the reasons Liszt was such a genius, he made things easier to play whilst sounding more difficult!

WB: You seem to have much affinity to Saint Seans, how is he considered in the UK, better than in France as your colleague Jean Philippe Collard said?

SH: He is underrated, although less and less as the years go by. It’s interesting what Collard said about Saint Seans being more popular in the UK than in France!

WB: Do you think you need to be French in order to understand Saint Seans?

SH: No, but you need at least knowledge where the music comes from. You could also ask the question “What is typically English music?”Does “English”mean Saxon? Viking? Elgar’s music has some deeply nostalgic quality, but is it typically English? Or is Byrd? Or Vaughan Williams? Gieseking was one of the greatest pianists in French music, whereas he was German, Cortot was great in Schumann, whereas he was Swiss-French.

WB: Is there any English piano music that si worthwile by the way?

SH: Yes, from a quite recent past, there is Ades, Birstwistle, Maxwell Davies amongst living composers. From the past, Bowen and Ireland also wrote beautiful music. Britten is not as impressive in his piano music as in his other works, Tippett also wrote for piano – four fine sonatas and a gorgeous concerto. It’s actually interesting that the first body of music written for a keyboard instrument comes from England – The Elizabethan virginalists Byrd and Gibbons. There were both perios of richness and huge gaps!

WB: You play contemporary music, do you feel it is the duty of a pianist to defend music of his own century?

SH: I haven’t commissioned anything myself directly, but I have been involved in commissions, e.g. the 2nd Concerto by Lowell Liebermann that was commissioned by Steinway. And Tsontakis and James MacMillan are both writing concertos for me- for Dalls Symphony and Minnesota Orchestra. I find it interesting to see works by contemporary composers, no matter how unknown they are, but I receive so many scores.....I have to be sure it’s a good piece though I program a new composition with an orchestra.

WB: During your previous recital in Amsterdam, you played a contemporary work by Tsontakis, “Ghost Variations”, how did you get to know this piece?

SH: It was written for the pianist Yefim Bronfman, but it’s a very long piece of about 70 pages. He didn’t have time to learn it and the score had not been looked at since then. I discovered Tsontakis’music in an orchestral concert and spoke to him. He sent me the score and I looked at it and started to play it through and gradually fell in love with it. For me, it’s a greater piece than Prokofiev’s sonatas, which I feel are almost overrated, although the 7th Sonata and parts of the 6th and the 8th sonatas are wonderful. I have played the Ghost Variations dozens of times, and when I performed it at the Philharmonie in Berlin, for example, some of the orchestra players were really enthusiastic about the music and said it was one of the most extraordinary pieces they had heard. It’s a mixture of the heart and the head, and I think that’s what makes a piece great. I also heard a CD of his String Quartets and liked them. I thought they were fascinating pieces, real masterworks.

WB: Many former composers, e.g. Chopin, Liszt, Brahms, Debussy, Rachmaninov and Prokofiev were excellent pianists, what about contemporary composers? Do they have any understanding of the instrument?

SH: During the 20th century, there was a point when one became either a performer or a composer. However, Shostakovitsj was a good pianist and Strawinsky was a decent pianist. Of the contemporary composers,  Thomas Adès is a wonderful pianist. .

WB: How does it work when someone dedicates a piece to you, do you have a say in this? Do you give suggestions?

SH: I haven’t worked enough with composers. With Liebermann, who is an excellent pianist,  I made suggestions – some he liked, others he rejected. Some composers who don’t play the piano confuse complexity with virtuosity. They need to learn something from Liszt! 

WB: Does it ever happen that a composer comes to you with a score and that you don’t understand the score and feel unable to perform it?

SH: In contemporary music, different skills are involved sometimes. For instance, I couldn’t bring anything to the 2nd sonata of Boulez. I am glad that some people play such intensely complex scores- Pollini is extraordinary in the Boulez sonata of course. Although some modern music sometimes sounds as if has not been written for humans to perform! 

WB: Shura Cherkassky was very positive about your playing, what are your memories of this legendary pianist?

SH: I met him at the end of his life, but he was not a close friend. He was very supportive and warm. I was told recently that he said he was very flattered and honoured when he saw his picture hanging next to mine in Steinway Hall in New York! I was touched to hear this anecdote about someone I admired so much. For me, he was the ultimate instinctive player, he didn’t have a cerebral approach to music. He worked very hard and practised very slowly in a very detailed way. He actually never wanted to talk about music, but rather about holiday resorts and gossip! 

WB: Who else do you admire?

SH:  I mentioned Horowitz before, furthermore there is Richard Tauber.His rythmical freedom was so liberating and outrageous whilst remaining balanced! I also admire Kreisler, Kleiber and there is a Russian cellist, Shafran.

WB: Do you have any friends among pianists?

SH: I have had wonderful times with Steven Osborne, Imogen Cooper, Jean Yve Thibaudet, Olli Mustonen, Howard Shelly to name a few. There is a general friendliness I experience.

WB: Does classical music have a future?

SH: Certainly, although I am not sure whether it will be the same (a mobile phone rings with the melody of Für Elise, WB), but you see, as long as people still want Für Elise on their cell phone, although the future of classical music will be more profound than that I hope! It is slow but long in its life, whereas pop music is quick and fast, the latter is created to be disposable. People may come to classical music later in their lives. Young people rarely want to do socially what their parents do. What I do reject is the excessive marketing and manipulation by some of the big recording companies. This is a form of abuse by people who look solely to make money at the expense of music.

When we walk back to the hotel, Hough says something very interesting: “Do you realize that in the entire history of music artists have only actually been concertizing for one and a half centuries? That’s curious, isn’t it?”

© 2004 Willem Boone



Arnhem, 12 July 2004

Stephen Kovacevich has just played Beethoven’s 4rth Concerto with the Gelders Orkest (They record for Naxos and are better known under the name of Arnhem Philharmonic Orchestra) and the excellent, but very modest, German conductor Berhard Klee. Kovacevich impressed with his concentration, and the way he sits at the keyboard vaguely reminds me of the late Emil Gilels. “Just give me your number so that I can call you in case it doesn’t work out”says Kovacevich, when I ask him for an interview. We agree to meet the next day at the same venue. I sincerely hope that my mobile phone will not ring on the Saturday morning and indeed it doesn’t. There were a few other complications, I almost ended up in a traffic jam (on a Saturday morning 11.30 a.m!) and I almost got locked in the hall, but thankfully I managed to escape and meet Stephen Kovacevich for an exclusive interview, in which we focused on his relationship with the Beethoven concertos and sonatas, favourite pianists and his studies with Myra Hess.


Willem Boone (WB): You played Beethoven’s 4rth Piano Concerto last night, were you asked to play this concerto or did you choose it yourself?

Stephen Kovacevich (SK): I can’t remember, they wanted the Emperor Concerto, but I will play Beethoven 4 next week in New Zealand. I also played a lot of recitals lately, so there was no time to properly rehearse the Emperor.

WB: What is your relationship with this concerto?

SK: I am still in love with it!

WB: What makes this piece so special for you?

SK: Beethoven normally has an incredible energy, it doesn’t happen often that he is so gentle. Brahms hated to write vivace, if he used it at all, it was always “vivace ma non troppo”. Similarly, Beethoven must have hated to write “moderato” and the first movement of the 4rth concerto is an allegro moderato. The two other movements are different; the second is full of imagination and the third is hardly moderato, it’s vivacious. I have been working very long to find a consistent tempo for the first movement and last night I played with a very musical conductor, Bernard Klee, I think we found something together...

WB: Do you agree with Claudio Arrau who said the first movement was tragical?

SK: No, I don’t.

WB: Did you combine two of the Beethoven cadenzas in the first movement?

SK: No, I combined three, Beethoven’s and my own!

WB: You didn’t want to play your own cadenza?

SK: I did, there were a few moments from my own one, I think cadenzas shouldn’t always be the same.

WB: You made a second recording of the Beethoven concertos both as a soloist and conductor. Was that easier than playing them with a conductor?

SK: In a way, the ensemble of a soloist who conducts is easier, because you can put the piano in the middle of the orchestra and you are part of it. On the other hand, with a good conductor like Bernard Klee last night, I am happy too. As long as it’s not with a “Kapellmeister”.

WB: What do you mean?

SK: Routine... someone who is not inspired!

WB: EMI recently issued your set of complete Beethoven sonatas, would you consider this as a mile stone in your recording career?

SK: It is my mile stone, for sure!

WB: It took you a long time, around ten years...

SK: Longer, it was eleven or twelve years I believe. The biggest challenge was to learn the Hammerklavier sonata.

WB: What is so difficult about that particular sonata?

SK: It’s a monster... It’s difficult to be able to play all the notes... there are some moments, for instance in the final fugue where nobody really plays all the notes or trills, we almost do! The intensity of the whole piece is extremely difficult.

WB: Wouldn’t you say that it is equally difficult to sustain the slow movement since it is so long?

SK: Ah, that is the cri du coeur of Beethoven , along with the two arias of opus 110. Well, you either have the intensity and then it’s not difficult, or you don’t and then it is difficult...

WB: Is it true that the tempo marking of Czerny in the score of the first movement is impossible to play?

SK: Schnabel tried and I think Gulda too, although I am not sure about the latter. Peter Serkin also did, but I think it’s terrible. When I play it at tempo marking 132, it simply sounds ridiculous. I often had the same experience as a student: when I choose a tempo away from the piano, it was always too fast.  We should bear in mind that Beethoven only heard the internal sound when he wrote this piece. We do have recordings from Bartok and Strawinsky and they didn’t always take their own tempo markings. Once I played the Piano Concerto of Michael Tippett with Michael Tilson Thomas and I played according to the required  metronome marking and Tilson Thomas asked me why I played so fast. We shouldn’t be too strict with this, I think we want to be like good boys and girls and always respect the “good”tempo!

WB: Is it true that you rerecorded a few sonatas for the set of Beethoven sonatas?

SK: Yes, we were not happy with the sound of a few recordings and EMI wanted to offer the best possible sound. I remember we worked in a studio that had just been painted and things didn’t work at the time.

WB: How did that affect your playing?

SK: Some of the old recordings had a very heavy sound. The paint wasn’t hard and it obviously affected the sound.

WB: Do you have any particular favourites among the Beethoven sonatas?

SK: The Hammerklavier and also opus 2/2 and opus 109.

WB: Do you agree that the complete cycle is coherent in its variety?

SK: You can understand that opus 111 was the last one, the harmonies have become more chromatic and there is more pianistic virtuosity. For me opus 109 and 111 radiate some sort of faith that life begins again... maybe that’s philosophy and if it’s religion, then you call it religion. The darkest music by Beethoven I know is opus 110. The arias make me think of someone who is dying and who is almost unable to speak, especially when the aria comes back...

WB: The final fugue is so monumental too... So much concentration in hardly 20 minutes..

SK: Not even...

WB: Are you ready to take up other long term projects since you have finished this Beethoven project? All the Mozart concertos for instance?

SK: I am actually not interested in big projects, I’d like to learn a lot of chamber music, such as the piano trios and quartets by Brahms and the violin sonatas by Bartok.

WB: Have you already chosen partners for these projects?

SK:  I am not thinking of  a partner in particular, but yes, I have thought of some.

WB: I remember I heard you many years ago in a superb concert of Beethoven sonatas with Kyung Wha Chung. I thought EMI wanted to record it, but it unfortunately never worked out.

SK: Did you hear that in Holland?

WB: Yes, it was in Amsterdam around 1991.

SK: I’ll be playing in Amsterdam in November with Truls Mork, I love him as a cellist.

WB: I read in a French magazine that Rachmaninov is one of your idols. Why do you admrie him so much?

SK: He was a genius, his recording of Schumann’s Carnaval is phenomenal. Quite interestingly, he played a surprising amount of Beethoven sonatas, but he only played the first of the five concertos. The others gave him no pleasure, can you imagine?

WB: Do you also admire him because he played the kind of virtuoso repertoire you are usually not associated with?

SK: It could be....

WB: Have you ever played Rachmaninov in concert?

SK: No, I haven’t . I learnt all his concertos and I love them, but I haven’t played them in public. I don’t know if it is my music on stage...

WB: Are there any young pianists you adimire?

SK: Kissin is not young now, but he is marvellous. And the young English pianist Freddy Kempff, who is extremely gifted. The critics are against him, but I think he is very good.

WB: Do you understand the success of someone like Lang Lang who is so hyped up nowadays?

SK: Let’s wait and see....

WB: You studied with Myra Hess. What is the most important thing you learnt from her?

SK: The inside of the music. To produce a beautiful sound with a lot of variation. She was fantastic in Beethoven, Schubert, Schumann, Mozart, Brahms. And she used to be very popular in Holland and the USA. She could fill Carnegie Hall!

WB: Wasn’t she unusual in her repertoire? She used to play the Brahms concertos

SK: Gina Bachauer also played them. It was unusual at the time, but not today.

WB: Speaking of feminine pianists, you lived together with a pianist who happens to be one of my idols, Martha Argerich. This is maybe a forward question, you are a very good pianist yourself, but wasn’t it sometimes difficult to live with someone who is that gifted? Have you never been jealous of Martha’s technical abilities?

SK: No, I haven’t, I think they are fantastic!

WB:She is rumoured to never pratice, is that true?

SK: O no, that is not true, on the contrary, she works very hard!

WB: Have you ever worked on the same pieces when you were together?

SK: Good question... Actually no, our repertoire is quite different.

WB: The two of you made a recording in the 70’s with Mozart, Debussy and Bartok and if my memory serves me correctly you never played together ever since. Martha plays a lot with other pianists, is there any chance that you will team up together in the future?

SK: That was when we were still together, I don’t know. It might happen.

WB: Martha and yourself have a daughter, Stephanie. She is a photographer, but suppose she would have liked to become a concert pianist, would you have encouraged her? What particular advice would you have given her?

SK: No, I wouldn’t. There are already two in the family, there is no need for another!

WB: You occasionally give concerts as a conductor. What are your ambitions as a conductor?
SK: I have no ambitions, I just want to conduct about ten or fifteen concerts a year, that’s all.

Stephen Kovacevich says he will play the Beethoven 4rth Concerto this evening in Nijmegen and says he has heard good things about the hall of “De Vereeniging”. He asks me whether it is indeed a good hall. I reassure him and answer that it is quite nice and that I like it actually better than the hall where he played last night (Musis Sacrum in Arnhem)... but he says he was quite happy last night...

© 2004 Willem Boone


Amsterdam, 27 May 2006

The eminent Dutch pianist Tan Crone is mainly known for her collaboration with many Dutch and international musicians, among which Roberta Alexander, Arleen Auger, John Bröcheler, Miranda van Kralingen, Tibor de Machula, Theo Olof, Marien van Staalen, Carolyn Watkinson, etc. She also has a reputation as a teacher. And, something that few will know, she knew the legendary pianist Clara Haskil quite well. She received letters from the famous Haskil, was asked to turn pages during recording sessions and accompanied her during her only American tour in 1956. I had previously heard Tan Crone on the radio when she spoke at length about Haskil so after a pre-concert talk in Rotterdam when she spoke about Brahms’s Second Piano Concerto, I decided to ask her for an interview. She accepted and one month later, I visited her, listened to her stories in her beautiful appartment in Amsterdam with view of the Amstel river and the Skinny Bridge. I hardly needed to encourage her, I barely sat down and she started reminising about her great colleague, with several handwritten letters by Haskil on her lap....

Willem Boone (WB): Looking at the biography of Jerôme Spyket, it appears that Haskil wrote an enormous amount of letters during her life...

Tan Crone: That was at a time when travelling took much longer than nowadays and when artists stayed longer at the same hotel. Haskil was actually only well known during the last fifteen/twenty years of her life, before that period she was often ill and therefore she had a lot of time to think and reflect.

WB:  Yes, but even when she was well known, she still wrote a lot of letters!

TC: That’s true, but in general they were much shorter.

WB: How did you get to know her?

TC: That was in the 50’s when the Brabants Orkest had just been founded. They played the Schumann Concerto under Hein Jordans with Clara Haskil as the soloist. They played four concerts in Den Bosch, Breda, Eindhoven and Tilburg, but unlike nowadays, these were not four consecutive performances. They rehearsed in a building called “Het Kruithuis” in Den Bosch, the city where I was born. I used to play with orchestra too and Jordans asked me whether I wanted to prepare the rehearsals of the Schumann Concerto. I had played this concerto for my final exam and thought it was a great experience as a young pianist who was not even 20 years old to help the orchestra. I asked whether I could attend the rehearsal with Haskil. The Kruithuis was not far away from the city center and at that time, there were no taxis or cars to take musicians to their hotel or to the station. They just walked to the station. When I went to my bike after the rehearsal, I met Haskil outside. I told her that I had heard her play, she was interested to hear that I studied the piano and that I had prepared the rehearsal with the orchestra. She knew my piano teacher Nelly Wagenaar, which was a good recommendation. We walked together and I carried her bag, I almost asked her if she wanted to ride on the back of my bike. She was a lady with a slight handicap, so of course I didn’t ask her. Jordans invited me for the concert in Eindhoven and I had to promise Haskil to come round after she had played. By chance, we both took the same train to Paris shortly after. She often stayed in Paris, where her sister Jeanne lived, whereas she lived in Vevey with her other sister Lily. She travelled first class, I travelled 2nd class, but she begged me to stay with her. She liked talking and was very interested. She spoke French very well. In Paris, her sister Jeanne was waiting for her, she introduced me to her. At that time, I studied in Paris with Nadia Boulanger, that was another good recommendation.

She invited me for her recital at the Théâtre des Champs Elysées. I remember only two of the pieces she played, Bach’s Toccata in E minor and Schubert’s Sonata in B flat major, D 960, I don’t remember the rest of the program. After the concert, a lot of Romanians flocked to her dressing room. She asked me whether I wanted to have coffee at her hotel and Jeanne gave me a pass to attend the concerts of the orchestra in which she was playing, the Orchestre des Concerts Lamoureux. It was a nice acquaintance, but I wouldn’t call it a friendship. 

Later, she made recordings in the Netherlands with Grumiaux at the Kurhaus in Scheveningen and in the Bachzaal in Amsterdam. I turned pages during the recording sessions and concerts. I still remember that she was never satisfied, wheras I thought she did amazing things. At that moment, I realized there are degrees of excellence. Sometimes, she closed the lid of the piano and said: “I won’t play any more and I don’t want this to be kept”. It sometimes irritated me, when you are turning pages for someone, you tend to listen less well. By the way, Grumiaux and his wife were always extremely nice to her. They always brought her gifts and always accompanied her to her hotel.

Sometimes I wrote to her and I also got letters in return. I gave the originals to her sister Jeanne after her death and made copies for myself. In the book “Frauen mit Flügel”, they included a short letter from Haskil to me. “The first time, I opened the book, I just saw the page with my own name”!). Sometimes, I went shopping with her, because she had little confidence. I remember we went to the Bonetterie in The Hague. After she had seen herself in a mirror she would sometimes suddenly walk out of the shop, due to her lack of confidence.

In the mid 50’s, I studied in the Unites States (Boston). Coincidentally, Haskil played there in 1956 with the conductor Charles Münch three times Beethoven's Third Piano Concerto and once Mozart’s Piano Concerto in D minor K 466. He was a charming man, who loved women, regardless whether they were beautiful or not. The orchestra adored him. Haskil was completely unknown in America. She toured with the Boston Symphony Orchestra to Philadelphia and New York. She sent me a letter and asked whether I wanted to accompany her. She wanted me to help her with the language, since she didn’t speak English very well. She stayed at the Ritz Carlton Hotel in New York and I stayed with friends. She created a sensation and was surrounded by journalists. After the intermission, she wanted to listen to Tschaikofsky’s Pathétique. She was so impressed at the end she didn’t want to leave. She got angry when I tried to guide her through the audience when the applause started. Münch invited her to come over to eat spaghetti after the concert, but she was also invited to a chique party. She refused to go there “There will be a grand piano and of course they will want mo to play’. I had to excuse her and say that Madame Haskil had become unwell and couldn’t come, which made it possible for her to go and see Münch! She had already been invited for a second tour and I even managed to get time off to accompany her again.

WB: Did that tour take place?

TC: No, she was not feeling well at the time, she had to cancel.

It struck me that I seldom heard her practice, I asked her “Clara, (I had to call her Clara), I never hear you practice”, to which she answered “No, I used to do that when I was young”. The only thing I heard her play in her dressing room was the Chopin study opus 10/2 in chromatic scales and it was flawless. She had huge, “meaty” hands and a natural talent for the instrument.
For every performance with a different conductor, she got a new score in which she noted his remarks. She didn’t want to show Szell for instance that she had played the same concerto with Münch one week before...

WB: Is it true that she never had scores with her?

TC: She sent me to a shop in Amsterdam, Broekmans en van Poppel to find her a score. She always wanted to look at a fresh score.

One of my teachers, Rudolf Serkin, studied with the same teacher as that of Haskil. As a young girl, she had been very ill and was forced to stay in bed for a long time. She had hardly experienced anything in her youth. However, she played the music of Granados and Albeniz with the temperament of someone who had experienced a thousand love stories. You see, you really don’t need to have lived through anything to play well...!

She was very interested in everything I did, I was very young and unexperienced at the time. At first she wrote “Liebes Fräulein”, later on she wrote “Ma chère Tan”, I have a letter she wrote on the train (“Dans le train de Paris à Amsterdam”). I even have a picture on which she had written “Pour ma chère Tan, que j’aime de tout mon coeur”( To my dear Tan, whom I love with all of my heart). I was quite proud of that.

WB: Do you have pictures of Haskil and yourself?

TC: No, I was the one who took the pictures. Later on, I received her records with a dedication. When she recorded the Mozart Double Concerto with Anda, she said I would only get the record once I guessed whether she played first or second piano.

WB: And what happened?

TC: I don’t remember, but she gave me the record anyway. We stayed in touch until her death. I heard about it on the radio, it was a tremendous shock.

WB: Her death at the Antwerp’s Central Station, when she accidently fell off one of the stairs, wasn’t that just unfortunate?

TC: We’ll never know, it could have been a small stroke..

WB: When I was doing my “homework”, while listening to her performance of Mozart’s Variations on a theme of Duport, K 573, I was struck by her extremely clear left hand playing!

TC: That’s true, I recognize her playing because of her left hand. Her jeu perlé is very characteristic. It has focus, like a singer is supposed to have in his voice.

TC: She loved doing normal things, for instance, I once took her for a bus ride in new York. The pianist Geza Anda, who happened to be in New York at the same time, was furious and said: “How could you take such a fragile woman for a bus ride?”But she wanted it so badly! I also took her to museums. She hated pretentiousness, she had experienced too much of that.

WB: What kind of a person was she? She comes across as a pretty pessimistic person in Spyket’s book

TC: That’s correct, but she needed joy. And she had a great sense of humor.

WB: How did you find out about that?

TC: She could laugh about small and silly things. It has to do with intelligence when you can laugh about such things. She was egocentric though, always concerned about how she felt. A lot of colleagues like Serkin, Stern and Anda were married and had families. She was by herself and lived with her sister Lily in Vevey. Her other sister lived in Paris.

WB: Didn’t she feel the need to marry? Spyket is not very explicit about that in his book!

TC: I don’t know whether she felt the need to marry. Maybe nobody ever proposed to her. She was not approachable because of her handicap. She was a simple, unassuming woman. Clothes were not as important as nowadays. And right after the war, there were less clothes. She often wore a long skirt and a blouse, it had to feel confortable. Only in the 70’s, was there more luxury.

WB: Was she an innocent person?

TC: I can’t tell you, the age difference was too important.

WB: What made her so unforgettable for you?

TC: Her touch, the lyricism. It was magical. The other day, I heard someone say on the radio that nobody can be compared to her when it comes to Mozart Piano Concertos. She was simply spellbinding and created a very special atmosphere.

WB: Why?

TC: Because of her touch, the timing and the honesty of her playing. She had a lot of temperament, just like Martha Argerich, whom I admire, although Haskil didn’t walk on the edge, as Argerich sometimes does. Haskil had an enormous, flexible hand. Huge, but not unelegant? They were like those of the harpist Phia Berghout.

WB: Spyket’s book lists all the compositions she played throughout her life, her repertoire must have been huge!

TC: At the end of her life, it wasn’t that big any more and she often played the same pieces. That’s still the case with certain musicians..

WB: Did she ever hear you play?

TC: No, she was convinced it was ok. There was no time for it.

WB: Would you have been intimidated if she had found the time?

TC: Probably, yes. I was less convinced of my solo playing.

WB: Did she ever say anything about colleagues?

TC: She never said anything bad about other musicians, never anything good either.. She mostly avoided the subject, although she asked me whether I listened to others like Anda and Istomin.

WB: May I ask you a few questions about yourself? Do you still play concerts?

TC: No, I stopped playing concerts. I wanted to stop when things were still going ok. I was getting increasingly tired of having to schedule concerts long in advance. In addition, I was the one who had to plan all the rehearsals. I planned to stop playing  concerts by no longer accepting engagements. A lot of my “customers” like Theo Olof had stopped playing, and singers like Bröchler and Alexander were increasingly focusing on opera. Rehearsing means a lot of work. You can’t afford to be ill. I also wanted to do other things, like travelling and gardening.

WB: Don’t you play the piano any more at all?

TC: Yes, I do, but I need to be encouraged. I play piano trios and quartets with friends at home or pieces I don’t know very well. We pianists can go on for a long time!

© Willem Boone, 2006

Hilversum, 25 April 2005

Meeting Vladimir Ashkenazy for an interview can seem a daunting task. How to squeeze in an appointment in his very busy schedule? After his concert in Amsterdam in July 2004 with the NHK Symphony Orchestra he was willing, but immediately asked: “The question is when and where?” Thankfully, he came with a solution himself: “I will be in Hilversum in the Netherlands to record a CD at the end of April 2005.”  Willem Boone and Jeroen Vonhögen spoke with Vladimir Ashkenazy, who was recording Respighi with the Radio Philharmonic Orchestra in one of the Dutch radio studios in Hilversum.  The interview took place in the canteen, where the conductor and pianist had lunch, together with his wife Dody.

Willem Boone (WB): If I look at your achievements, the number of records you have made, the concerts for many decades both as a pianist and a conductor, the amount of works you have played, it is simply mind-boggling. Where do you get the energy from to do all this?

Vladimir Ashkenazy (VA): From my parents, I suppose (laughs)... Let me get my wife, she is lost (walks away and comes back with his wife Dody)

WB: Are you indeed such a well-organized person as they say? Someone has said: “If you give Ashkenazy one hour, he’ll work for two hours”

VA: People talk too much, I don’t know...
Dody Ashkenazy (DA): Yes, you are extremely organized!

WB: Are you a quick learner?

VA: Fortunately, yes, I am, but many people are, that’s nothing special... All my friends are quick learners. I am a quick sight-reader, that’s a gift.

WB: I am reminded of a Dutch conductor, who does a lot of music on period instruments, Frans Brüggen. He once said he always heard music in his head, even when talking to someone, for instance the first movement of a Haydn Symphony at the beginning of an interview and half an hour later he heard the last movement.... What about you, do you always hear music in your head?

VA: No, when you interview me, I think of what you are saying!

WB: In the past, you conducted several substantive projects at the same time, such as the complete Beethoven piano sonatas, all the Chopin piano works and the Mozart piano concertos. Let’s take Beethoven, you also played all his concertos, the violin and cello sonatas, the piano trios. Is it necessary for you to know the entire output of a composer?

VA: Yes, of course it is, but the main reason was that both Decca and myself were interested in these projects. It is a challenge to play a lot of music.

WB: Do you read correspondance and biographies of composers to know more about them?

VA: Sometimes, you basically find out that they too were human beings. They were gifted, but they had problems too. It can be informative, for instance I found out that Beethoven had such an incredible warm heart, the way he helped his nephew.... but reading biographies doesn’t always help you to play better...

WB: Have you ever thought of visiting the room where Schubert lived in order to understand his music?

VA: The music speaks for itself, biographies only confirm what you find in the music. You have to understand music by itself.

WB: I’d like to talk about a few things that strike me when I listen to your piano playing. One of the things is that you are not only a great technician and an architect, but also a sculpter. You are always shaping the sound, is that something you are conciously working on?

VA (surprised): I don’t know, I don’t comment on my own activities!

WB: You are one of the most prolific recording artists, may I conclude that you obviously feel at home in a recording studio?

VA: Yes, it’s interesting and good to listen to how terrible you are. You can try to improve....

WB: You said in an interview not too long ago that you probably recorded too much, yet you are still doing it, why is that?

VA: It’s my life, if I am asked to record, I do it. It’s fun and I just love music so much. I also have a big record collection.

WB: How many records do you have?

VA: A few thousand CD’s

WB: Do you have time to listen to CD’s?

VA: It’s not that I always want to listen to all of them, but I like to have things when I need them.

WB: There are very few live recordings of yours, are you against it?

VA; No, I am not against it, but you don’t achieve the same result in concert as in a recording studio. A live recording is seldom perfect.

WB: Can you achieve spontaneity in a studio?

VA: Of course you can, otherwise there is no point. Music can’t be just clinical!

WB: Which role do recordings have in your life, do you want to document certain stages throughout your career?

VA: No, I don’t listen to my CD’s, if I am asked to record things, I do it.

WB: Why did you choose to re-record a lot of things?

VA: You try to improve things..

WB: There is something that strikes me in your recordings, particularly those from the 70’s and 80’s, they sound slightly agressive and very closely miked. Is that on your request?

VA: I have no idea what you are talking about, I have no answer to it..(asks his wife)
DA: He usually is not very particular about getting a certain sound, but in recordings from the 60’s, the sound used to be very muted with the piano in the background. Maybe Decca got complaints about that and changed things? The only thing he basically asks when he is in a studio is: “Can we record? “

WB: Do you listen to tapes after you recorded?

VA: Yes, I have to

WB: Is that painful to you?

VA: No, normally, it’s OK.

WB: Did/do you have carte blanche from Decca?

VA: I have/had a wide choice, normally they agreed with a lot of things I asked. Things are difficult now, because the market is low.

WB: Suppose you would have asked to play piano works by Dvorak or Kodaly, would Decca have agreed?

VA: They have other pianists too, but I had a good choice, I can’t complain. There were priorities though, such as the Beethoven sonatas. The most important is that I was able to play great music, I have been lucky to record the basic repertoire.

WB: An exclusive recording contract must have been a powerful back up for your career, how should young pianists make a career nowadays when contracts are being constantly discontinued?

VA: I don’t know, life changes, there are no prescriptions...


WB: You said in a public interview before your concert in Amsterdam in August
Last year that you hardly played the piano in public any more..

VA; No, I didn’t say that, I said I played much less, but I still practice every day and learn a lot of repertoire.

WB: And do you still play piano concertos?

VA: Yes, I direct Mozart and Beethoven concertos from the keyboard.

WB: And you are still recording solo repertoire, some of it being fiendishly difficult, e.g the Rachmaninov transcriptions. Would you still be able to play that in recitals?

VA: I don’t play recitals any more, I have no time.

WB: When did you stop giving recitals?

VA:About three years ago.

WB: I attended a few rounds of the Liszt competition in Utrecht earlier this month, where pianists had to play, among other things, the first Mephisto waltz. I can’t remember one memorable performance, but when I came home and listened to your disc, I couldn’t believe how you played those treacherous jumps at such awesome speed. Was that “difficult” to you?

VA: It’s slavery and a gift (laughs)


WB: You have of course worked with many conductors. Was there any conductor from whom you really learnt things that were of use when you took up conducting yourself?

VA: It’s difficult to say how much you can learn..

WB: You must have learnt things when you watched them?

VA: I couldn’t watch them, I was to busy to learn, when I had to play! In the end, you can’t imitate, you have to do your own thing. You get ideas and you try to work them out, you try this or that and try not to do anything stupid. Klemperer already said (Ashkenazy quite funnily imitates how the great conductor spoke when he was paralyzed) “You can’t teach someone to be a conductor”

WB: One of my favourite recordings is your first reading of Rachmaninov’s second piano concerto with Kyrill Kondrashin. Do you remember him?

VA: (smiles), yes, I do!

WB: I have the impression that he is a rather underrated conductor, was he famous in Russia at the time?

VA: Yes, I think so, he was great.

WB: Are there any pianists with whom you particularly enjoy working?

VA: I like many pianists, as a conductor, I accompanied many colleagues, Pollini, Zimerman, Lupu, Perahia, Richter...

WB: Did you work with Argerich?

VA: Yes, I did, she’s a very warm person

WB: Isn’t it difficult to keep up with her?

VA: No, she is very easy to work with!

WB: Have you never considered playing duos with her? She works with so many pianists!

VA: Yes, I know that, but never thought of working with her as a piano duo

WB: Your colleague Zoltan Kocsis played and conducted Liszt’s first concerto from the keyboard and the conductor Dmitri Mitropoulos even did Prokofiev’s third piano concerto in this double role. Is that the limit of what you can do both as a soloist/conductor?

VA: You can do anything if you have enough rehearsal time, but playing and conducting Liszt and Prokofiev is not always advisable..

WB: Isn’t that the problem nowadays that you don’t get enough rehearsal time? Zimerman complained about that last year!

VA: Well, then you have to do it in one rehearsal!


WB: I have a few questions about some composers, you announced last year a recording of Bach’s Wohltemparierte Klavier. Is that correct?

VA: Yes, I just finished that.

WB: You said previously you were in awe of Bach, but somehow afraid to tackle his music, what made you change your mind?

VA: I am still afraid and still in awe, but I like challenges. And you know, I got used to playing many voices at the same time... I think it’s not so bad, some of them were really well played..

WB: Does it probably have something to do with your traversal of the complete Preludes and Fugues of Shostakovitch?

VA: O no, they are so different!

WB: Did you ever hear Shostakovitch as a pianist?

VA: No, I didn’t, but he wasn’t a good pianist, he never practized. There is a recording where he played his piano concertos and it isn’t very good. When he was young, he used to be better and even did silent films.

WB: You have said more than once that you dislike Liszt

VA: Yes, but some of it is fantastic! He was a strange man... (thinks).. he had a controversial character. On the one hand, there was the purity of expression, but something went against it. Sometimes, he was fantastically inspired, for instance in the B-minor sonata or the first Mephisto waltz, but a lot of his music is over the top. But what counts; he was incredibly devoted to music, he taught so many musicians and promoted Beethoven on the piano. And his imagination was amazing.

Jeroen Vonhögen (JV): What do you think of his late piano works?

VA: There is an attempt to get to another level, but he was at his best in his diabolical works , the first Mephisto waltz is fantastic.

WB: And what about the Totentanz?

VA: Mephisto is better! (laughs)

WB: And the concertos? You did his first concerto when you won the Queen Elisabeth Competition in 1956

VA: They are allright, but it wouldn’t be my first choice.

JV: Did you do the symphonic poems as a conductor?

VA: No, I never conducted any symphonic works by Liszt. Nobody asked me to do that, but I would like to do the Faust Symphony. Maybe it’s not totally convincing, but it’s a genuine piece. Liszt was definitely a genius.

WB: Is Chopin more your man?

VA: Ah, unbelievable! (looks up) He was really economical in his music. His late music is beyond comment, both on a spiritual and musical level. It’s organic, it makes sense. He was not going ahead of his time for the sake of going ahead. He was unlike Schönberg with his dodecaphonic music. I don’t like Schönberg’s attitude to art. Alban Berg was gifted though..

JV: Do you remember the first time you heard Chopin’s music?

VA: No, I don’t...

WB: There is one work though, which you didn’t include in your set of complete Chopin works, the Andante spianato and grande Polonaise brillante.

VA: That’s a brillant piece of a young composer, I like it, but it’s mostly played with orchestra. I didn’t get to it, I apologize for my omission, but it was not delibirate... there are many great recordings, they won’t miss mine...

JV: You also played Chopin’s first sonata, which is a rare piece

VA: It’s a student piece, Chopin was about fourteen or fifteen years old when he composed it. It’s embryonic and not very good.

JV: Was there any modern music dedicated to you?

VA: Yes, John Ogdon composed five Preludes for me, I played them.

JV: Does that make them special?

VA: No, but they are very idiomatic musically! Rautavaara also composed a piano concerto for me, that’s a very interesting sound world. And Andre Previn also composed a concerto for me.

WB: Didn’t he say when you played his Piano Concerto, which he dedicated to you, “It is a difficult piece, but the son of a bitch (Ashkenazy) read right through it”?

VA: No, that’s not true, Andre exaggerated my ability to learn. He is a good friend. Besides, of course it took time to learn the concerto which I liked very much. You see, that’s how legends get created. Don’t trust everything you hear! I will give you an example of how unreliable the press is. I was reading the Herald Tribune of last Monday (18 April 2005, WB) and in the section “People” I saw my name. I had been nominated conductor laureate for the season 2007-2008 of the Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra. I agreed when they asked me, because it’s a good orchestra. The newspaper wrote: “Ashkenazy heard the Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra for the first time when he was eleven years old and he was so moved when he heard them do Mahler first Symphony”. Now in 1948, I was living in Russia, and at the time I had never heard of Mahler or the Liverpool Philharmonic! It appeared that the editor of the Herald Tribune confused the biographies of Sir Simon Rattle and myself! It’s not a crime, but why? Why can’t they be accurate? It’s just unprofessional to write such things!

WB: Just one of my last questions, how is your oldest son doing? He is also a pianist, isn’t he?

VA: He is fine. We just played Ravel’s La Valse on two pianos at a Steinway gala in Hamburg. He now teaches in Angoulème, in France.

WB: Isn’t it just terrible to have a father called Vladimir Ashkenazy?

VA: Yes, it’s difficult... it doesn’t help things!


WB: What are you recording in Hilversum at the moment?

VA: Respighi’s Feste Romane, a very loud piece! But the orchestra is very good!

© Willem Boone 2005

Almere, 4 juni 2017

Willem Boone (WBo): I keep good memories of your playing that go back until 1989. I was  a student at that time and I worked as a guide on the canal tours. On a Sunday evening, there were a lot of concerts at the Pulitzer Hotel, mainly piano recitals. You played the penultimate Schubert sonata, in A major D 959, that I have seldom heard so beautifully played..

Willem Brons (WB): I really liked the director of the hotel, who was a friend of Hans Duijf from Cristofori. I once played a concert in the hotel garden that started at 8.30 pm, you had to pay attention to the church bells of the Westerchurch that rang at nine o’clock…

WBo: The other day I heard that same Schubert played by Arcadi Volodos and the newspapers were unanimous in their praise, however, your performance impressed me more… 

WB: Maybe his interpretation was less dramatic. The penultimate Schubert sonata is the most all-encompassing of the entire cycle and: it shows misery, mildness, spirituality, tenderness, despair, happiness, nostalgia, etc. I have always felt this way about the sonata, from the moment I started playing it! 

WBo: By the way, you were the teacher of my piano teacher, Robijn Tilanus! 

WB:  Yes, that’s correct, although she studied with me for only a short period of time. She was not sure whether to study biology or music. Whenever you have doubts, you shouldn’t choose music, at least that’s what my teachers told me when I was 17 or 18 years old. “What do you want to achieve in music?” people asked me, to which I answered: “I have no idea, but I want to know everything about it instead of staying an outsider, i.e. an amateur pianist.” Later on, Robijn overcame her doubts and decided to study music with Frank Mol, a very gifted musician who unfortunately died young.  

WBo: You are almost 80 years old, what has changed in the music world since you made your debut? 

WB: I never gave it much thought, I hardly ever think of it.. Generally speaking, you get more recognition when you get older and when you realise you have become better known. A career has its ups and downs. In the 70’s, I played four consecutive seasons with the Concertgebouw Orchestra, but then its new director Hein van Royen didn’t like my playing and I haven’t performed with the orchestra ever since. What I really like, is that I play more and more often abroad, people are more open-minded there. For instance I play every year in Russia and I get nowhere so much  acclaim as there, whereas there are countless pianists in that country who play more brilliantly. They obviously like what I do, that sounds better than the word “success”, which I dislike. I  played in Japan for about 30 years where I do everything what I like: I play concerts, give lectures and masterclasses. The latter is something I do less and less in the Netherlands, because nobody asks me. However, for the radio station “Concertzender” I comment every month a different composition. A while ago, I spoke about Beethovens Third Concerto,  pianist Hannes Minnaar who just recorded the concerto sent me a friendly mail about it. 

Wbo: Yes, I read you spoke about the Third Concerto by Beethoven and wanted to listen to it, but unfortunately that wasn’t possible. 

WB: Yes, you can, I played the recording of Perahia with the Concertgebouw Orchestra in the first two movements, for the last movement I preferred the tempo of Haskil, as well as her lively spirituality.  

WBo: Regarding this concerto, I find it so special that the piano starts its entry with a scale, is there one other concerto that starts the same way? 

WB: The scale was originally a rhetoric figure. Do you know by the way who invented the scale as a technical exercise?

WBo: No, I have no idea!

WB: That was Czerny, in Bach´s time, there were no scales. When you played an ascending motive, it was something special, e.g. at the end of the first fugue of the Wohltemperiertes Klavier. Back to Beethoven, I think the motive you mentioned has to do with Mozart, he did the same at the end of his Fantasy in C-minor KV 475. There are more influences of Mozart in Beethoven’s Third Piano Concerto.   

WBo: Do you have a preference for a special key?

WB: No, not really. Every key has its own characteristics. It’s strange that people understand so little about this; every key represented a certain “territory” for certain composers. That originates from the baroque when every key had a degree of purity or impurity. B-minor represented compassion, F-major faith in God. With Beethoven, C-minor is a dramatic key, whereas with Bach it stands for something serious and sad.  

WBo: In the last edition of the Dutch magazine Luister, there was a double interview with yourself and pianist Daria van den Bercken, in which you were described as “a pianist who was already on a mission when the first copy of Luister was issued, 65 years ago.” What exactly was your mission? 

WB: I don’t remember, the word “mission” is slightly pretentious. I am more aware of what I want now. A lot of teachers are piano teachers instead of music teachers and it’s all about technique. It’s difficult to build up knowledge in music: to discover its secrets means going on a long discovery tour. Before the start of my concerts I have a ritual: before leavomg my dressing room, my wife says only one word: “Discover!” It means that you are open to the impressions of that particular moment, I believe in it. Sometimes you feel resistance, but whenever something goes wrong, I no longer think all people dislike my playing. Those who like your playing don’t mind and those who do mind, say: “You see, he can’t pull it off either” (laughs)

WBo: Your colleague Mikhail Pletniev says he feels pain when he plays a wrong note. Do you have the same feeling? 

WB: Sometimes it happens, yes, when you play a wrong note in the most beautiful bar of a piece, you want to crawl away! I hope a listener can accept that an artist is also a human being… 

WBo: In the same interview in Luister you said: “I imagine that I teach and play better now than I used to” Isn’t it often ironic that a pianist at an advanced age can dig deeper, whilst his technique often declines? I heard Radu Lupu the other day, who is now 71. I was amazed to notice how fragile his technique has become and 71 isn’t extremely old for a pianist, is it?

WB: That question is difficult to answer. I haven’t heard Lupu lately, but I can hardly imagine that it has anything to do with technique. He had a massive technique and that isn’t simply gone. It’s probably more a matter of mentality: he has always been a wayward musician and he probably no longer enjoys concert life. My ideal is to improve myself every time. By the way, I am dissatisfied with a lot of interpretations by great pianists nowadays: there is little expression and they tend to exaggerate. Quite a lot of them misinterpret tempo indications, and a s a result they tell a different musical story. This is often obvious in Chopins Etudes, they sound downright ugly when they are only considered as an athletic achievement.  

WBo: Is this typical for the present or was it the case with older pianists as well? 

WB; I think so. But in general pianists are capable of a lot more nowadays and that’s tempting. I no longer have idols, however, there are a lot of musicians I respect. Music life is dominated by hypes and trends. Schumann’s Kreisleriana used to be a rather obscure piece, nobody played it.  It strikes me that the beginning is always played too fast. The score says “Ausserst bewegt” which means: “not extremely fast, but very turbulent” 

WBo: Speaking of this movement, it strikes me that a lot of pianists don’t sound intensely enough! 

WB: Yes, because it sounds too fast! (He shows that the voice in the right hand has a  three voiced dialogue with itself and the left hand has an underlying fourth voice, “that’s what Schumann learnt from Bach”).

WBo: Schumann wrote in a very polyphonous way! 

WB: Very polyphonous, I often notice that pianists play the beginning of Kreisleriana too fast (shows in an exaggerated way), that’s idiot! Schumann wrote long lines that are purely based on motives consisting of two notes only.  

WBo: Is there nobody who plays it the way Schumann intended it to be played? 

WB: I guess so (Since this sparked my curiosity I listened to the recording of Claudio Arrau at home. Arrau was famous for his faithfulness to the score and indeed with him, the same passage sounds very clear and not overly fast, WBo).

WBo: You said you are a happy person when “people who listen undergo a feeling close to transcendence.” Does that go for you as a musician as well? Your colleague Claudio Arrau once said: “When I play, I am in ecstasy.” That’s also a form of transcendence, isn’t it? 

WB: Maybe I shouldn’t have used that word “transcendence”. What I meant is that you experience something that is impossible to explain in words. It’s beautiful when someone comes around after a concert and is not able to say a word. Then you realize how deeply music can touch people’s hearts.  It’s mainly amateurs who react in such a way, although I experienced the same with professional musicians. I prefer to play pieces that cover all the aspects of life, such as Schubert’s sonatas.  

“Ecstasy”is a dangerous word: you should never go over the edge, otherwise you lose control. It does not always happen that you go to the far extreme, but I really know the feeling. Sometimes you feel completely shaken up after a performance! 

 WBo: Is that because of the piece you play or because of the moment? Or both? 

WB: First of all, it has to do with the piece itself. Schumann’s Fantasy is a good example: when you have reached the last pages, you feel you are ready to play them, since there was so much that prepared the end in an ideal way.  The last movement wouldn’t have had the same impact without the preceding two movements. I experience a similar feeling with the Gesänge der Frühe: it has do with eternity. They are not often performed, I find the late Schumann oppressive and dark, but sometimes he manages to break away from this, which has a liberating effect and which happens in such a penetrating way in the fifth Gesang.

WBo; I love Schumann very much, but with his last works I have the feeling the genius had vanished! 

WB: With me, it’s the opposite: I find the late Schumann much more touching. The Gesänge der Frühe are among my favourites. The tempo with his late works is always more slowly than we imagine it to be, you have to be open to this. But it’s true that the quality of his oeuvre is sometimes slightly uneven. I think however that it’s the musician´s fault when Schumann’s music doesn’t sound convincing. His music is vulnerable and is particularly prone to distortion.  

 (I tell about my own transcending experiences, three of them: Martha Argerich in recital in April 1979, Leonard Bernstein conducting Mahler 4th Symphony in 1987 and Richer playing Bach in 1991)  

WB: The musicians I admire are mainly great conductors: Abbado, especially in his last years, Haitink, Janssons. They don’t have to play the notes themselves, but to make sure that such a group of musicians give the best they have, that’s beautiful! I have to do it all alone…!  

WBo: You are very fond of the late Schubert sonatas and you said about them: “He continuously leaves reality and evokes what we can’t imagine.” What can that be, a dream world? 

WB: An ideal world. His song “Schöne Welt, wo bist du?“ describes this.  

WBo: Can we say that his music is treacherous?

WB: Yes, that’s true, it seems easy. My own teacher said: “If you don’t understand that universe, I can’t explain.” The better you understand a composer, the more you realize what you need to serve his music. I sometimes make jokes about Mozart and say:”If you spent as much time on his music as on Rachmaninov’s Third Piano Concerto, it can’t be that difficult.” People say Mozart is the most difficult of all composers, since you hear every wrong note, but wrong notes disturb me in Chopin and Ravel as well! I think Bach is the most difficult, his music is complex. But I’d like to say something about playing the piano in general: pianists tend to concentrate too much on the right hand and that’s simplistic. Whenever they get injuries, it’s always the right hand. You should pay attention to all voices and experience all of them, not only the so called melody. A pianist has to realize all this by himself, which is very different from a string quartet for instance. I am always aware of the relationship between horizontal and vertical and I am tired of those who make a difference between homophony and polyphony. For me there is only polyphony.  

WBo: You said you learn a lot from teaching. What have been your biggest insights?  

WB:  To hear something and being aware of what you haven’t heard yet. If you don’t regularly learn from your lessons, then you do something wrong, you keep repeating yourself.

WBo: In the same interview in Luister you spoke about “the invasion of Japanese students that started in 1987. All of a sudden, I had a group of students who were twice or three times as good.” Were they better than Dutch students and how come they had a higher level?  

WB: You have to put this in perspective: I started in 1971 at the former “muzieklyceum” and when this so called invasion started, I had worked as a teacher for 16 years. Until that time, I seldom had a talented student. In Japan I had to work hard, because I had to teach pieces I had never taught before, like Chopin or Scriabin Sonatas or Le Tombeau de Couperin. The talented students in the Netherlands went to work with Jan Wijn and they still do.  

WBo: Did the level of students in the Netherlands improve in the meantime? 

WB: Yes, although 60% of them comes from abroad!  

WBo: I’d like to ask you a few questions about Bach: you told you played an all Bach recital in 1964 in the Kleine Zaal of the Concertgebouw. Was that possible at the time? 

WB: It didn’t happen a lot, but yes, it was accepted. As long as you played Bach expressively, you were accused of romanticism, but I didn’t care. I didn’t play his music mechanically, but I experienced it (beleefde het).  One of the critics Hans Reichenfeld came to see me during the intermission, whereas he knew a pianist needs rest. He called my Bach “liberating”, after the intermission I played an English Suite and I had a memory lapse, but he didn’t mind and didn’t mention it in his review.  

WBo: In what way was your Bach liberating? 

WB: I had the courage to use my musicality and my musical imagination. In 1966, I disappeared for two years and went to Geneva: I didn’t do well I thought, the only thing that went well, was Bach. In 1968 I played in a series that was devoted to three debutants at the Stadhuis, the last three Beethoven sonatas. Reichenfeld came again and wrote that I had a rare affinity with the late Beethoven. It was special that such an authority came to listen to a debutant! The year after, I played the Diabelli Variations and the Hammerklaviersonata and every time, Reichenfeld came to listen to me.

My teacher Hilbrand had a lot of affinity with Beethoven, he could build up structures note after note, I stayed in touch until his death in 1983. I learnt most when I was no longer a regular student of his, but I kept visiting and asking him for advice. 

WBo; I have the feeling that Bach is often misunderstood: he sounds teutonic, heavy, religious whereas his music is so full of energy and vitality? 

WB: In the Wohltemporiertes Klavier, you see enormous contrasts: Bach masters the stile antico, the old polyphony from the Renaissance, but you also see homophony and personal expression. Quite often, it’s pure dance music and that’s noticeable in the choice of the measure. However, you shouldn’t play everything as if it’s dance music! I can no longer listen to the Brandenburg Concerts these days, they always sound too fast and superficial. By the way, the religious part plays an important role with Bach. I do feel the same with Beethoven, Schubert, Franck though.  

WBo: Does that go for his keyboard works too? 

WB: Yes, indeed. Old music is centered aroung the heart beat, it can increase, but not in extremis. This is nowadays considered as “boring”. Take for instance “Blitz und Donner” from St Matthew´s Passion, Bach composed this in 3/8, but not as if four bars form the measure as you often hear it! And the theme of the Goldberg Variations: it’s often played as a funeral march, whereas it was written in G major! That key has a wholly different character: it stands for “liebenswürdig.” 

WBo: You recorded book 1 from the Wohltemperiertes Klavier, are you going to record book 2 as well? 

WB: I planned to do so, but it has to do with finances. I was not so satisfied about that recording, but I tried to play the book as a whole and that worked well.  

WBo: Your colleague Murray Perahia once said something about Bach that intrigues me: “I am not religious in real life, but when I play Bach, I am terribly religious.” In what way do you need to be in order to play his music well? 

WB: I completely agree with him. 

WBo: Do you have to be religious to play Bach?

WB: Carel van der Linden wrote a booklet about the difference between “religious” and “not religious” and according to him, it’s not as big as you would expect. My father in law said that you had to play Franck as a religious person, even as if you were praying. He didn’t believe in God, but he did say this to me, so he probably wasn’t that far away.. If you are a total atheist, you don’t understand anything about music, because it’s about things that are timeless and unimaginable and this has a link with the religious aspect. Take Haydn in his “Sieben letzte Worte” or Liszt in his Via Cruxis.  

WBo: Yes, but they believed in God! 

WB: About Liszt, it was said that it was a pose, but that’s nonsense of course. Bartok was known to be an atheist, yet the second movement of his Third Piano Concerto is entitled “Andante religioso”. If someone doesn’t believe in anything, I ask: “What’s that music about then? Only about something that can be explained in an academic way? I really hope not!”  

WBo: About something higher? 

WB:  Music goes beyond anything that is timeliness, it’s part of the religious domain. I wrote a comment on Beethovens sonata opus 110 and related this to the caption: 25 December. That’s the date of birth of Christ, I regard this piece as a musical reflexion on the life of Jesus Christ. The key of A-flat major stands for simplicity and peace. In the arioso dolente, someone undergoes suffering, in the second arioso someone can’t breathe anymore and surrenders completely.  In the second fugue that leads to ecstasy, we experience resurrection. Beethoven wrote this sonata while working on his Missa Solemnis. He had been interested in religion for years, the theme of the fugue of the sonata opus 110 comes back in a comparable form in the Missa Solemnis. I try to explain to my students that you have to be open to all aspects of music, if you play Beethovens 4th Concerto a tad too fast, you are lost and rapid passages sound only brilliant, like in a piano concerto by Hummel. 

WBo: You also play the Hammerklavier sonata, what do you think of this particular composition?

WB: It is a much more complex composition (Goodness me, if I want to explain all this, it takes me at least half an hour..). I once played the Diabelli variations and I got one of the best reviews ever from Reichenfeld. He asked me whether I played the Hammerklavier sonata as well and I answered: “No, but I’ll play it next year”. I didn’t play the sonata, but then I had to learn it. At first, I blocked, because I tried to follow Beethovens impossible metronome indications.  I heard Friedrich Gulda and Eduardo del Pueyo play it live, but I didn’t understand much of the composition.  People are impressed when you play it by heart, but they cannot really enjoy the music. The first movement – if you are faithful to Beethovens metronome indication – resembles a tantrum, but the first motif is taken from an unfinished cantata: Vivat, vivat Rudolphos, he wanted to dedicate it to archduke Rudolph, as he did with this sonata. 

WBo; Doesn’t Beethoven transcend with this sonata?

WB: Yes, certainly and especially in the incredibly beautiful Adagio, where Beethoven achieves a depth that is indescribable. The late Beethoven strikes with his ability to compose in a condensed way: within a short time, he manages to express a lot with few notes. That makes the music so fascinating.  The condensed writing is also noticeable in the voicing, the harmonic finesse, the masterly building-up of tensions, the colours, etc.  With a work this long, it is a difficult task to do justice to all his intentions. And that is what makes the Hammerklavier so difficult, not mainly the technical demands, although these are not simple. 

WBo: Beethoven can be very inaccessible, for instance in the fugue of the Hammerklaviersonata and also in his Grosse Fuge!  

WB: The tempo of the last movement is “Allegro risoluto”, therefore it cannot be a race against the clock. Beethoven writes more than once a sforzato on every beat, so you cannot play it extremely fast. Everybody slows down at the middle section. If you take that part as a basis for the tempo of the entire movement, it becomes a different composition altogether!  In all movements, there is a lot of beauty and a wide variety of intentions. Its character is certainly not only titanic or inhospitable. 

WBo: How would you characterize the last movement: furious?

WB: Yes, that how it is often played. But there is so much more, for instance an incredibly positive vitality, moments of despair and even lyric. Why else are there indications in the score like “dolce” and “cantabile”? Beethoven once said: “The piano is an incomplete instrument”. Schubert can sound very beautiful on a period instrument, but some of Beethovens compositions don’t sound good on such an instrument, not even on a modern piano. In his string quartets, Beethoven is extreme in his writing, contrary to Mozart and Schubert who didn’t ask the impossible. He wrote his Hammerklaviersonata in worrisome circumstances.  At first, the fugue works as a liberation, but it remains an enormously difficult attempt to transcend himself.  You do not hear the the total liberation as in the 9th Symphony. It is a triumph, but it remains a phyrric victory. Shortly before the end of the fugue, there is a phrase in b flat minor, where the sadness of the adagio seems to come back, but then the composer pulls himself together and he ends the fugue with a new eruption of positive energy. 

WBo: I once heard you play Scriabin and Rachmaninoff, that is not music I would associate you with?  

WB: It was fun to do, I like Russian music and like to play Rachmaninoff, but unfortunately I don’t have the right hands for it. I did play his second concerto thirteen times and sometimes  it went really well!  

WBo: I heard your colleague Jan Wijn once say during a master class that “the piano animal is very much alive in everybody”, what about you? 

WB: Yes, it happened when I was young, but it is no longer the case now. That animal is not of much use with Schubert and Beethoven, their music is first and foremost about content. With Liszt, I prefer the works where it is not mainly about virtuosity, such as his Variations on “Weinen, Klagen”. I prefer to leave the animal alone, although I played Scriabins etude opus 8/12 and people told me: “That was not half bad!”

WBo: Aren’t you sometimes too modest? 

WB: That’s what they say sometimes… I think it’s rather the fact that I am not good with PR or websites. Of course, you are modest, I once read a beautiful interview with Andras Schiff who said that performing artists needed to be more modest. He is not the type of artist who brags a lot himself. These days, I often play a short piece by Kees Olthuis, which he dedicated to me. When I play it, I hardly take a bow, I walk towards him and give him the credits. The genius composers are the ones who should get the credits! Musicians sometimes make use of the enormous qualities of composers. The public tends to give credits to someone who plays fantastically, but it is actually turning things topsy-turvy! We have every reason to be modest!